Investigating the Genetic Architecture Underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Approved Research ID: 12703
Approval date: October 1st 2015
Lay summaryThe prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and infertility are increasing and the financial burden on society is substantial. Research has shown a link between birth weight and increased risk of these diseases and other cardiovascular/metabolic disorders. Genetics may be involved as not all individuals born of suboptimal weight go on to develop disease. The aims of this research are to: (1) identify novel genes that explain the adverse relationship between birth weight and cardiometabolic disorders, osteoporosis or infertility, (2) determine biological intermediates that partially mediate the relationship between birth weight and these disorders, using genetic profile scores. Currently, most interventions target individuals after the onset of clinical symptoms, by which time treatment is expensive and of limited effectiveness. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm suggests that there may be critical windows earlier in life that offer opportunities for disease treatment and prevention. The overall aim of this project is to use novel statistical genetics methods to identify genes that explain part of the observational association between birth weight and risk of cardiometabolic disease, osteoporosis or infertility, providing a better understanding of this relationship and its implications for future development of disease. We will conduct a genome-wide association study to identify individual genetic variants and regions of the genome that are 1) jointly associated with birth weight and cardiometabolic disorders or osteoporosis, 2) associated with fracture risk or bone related phenotypes and 3) associated with fertility defects. In addition, we will use genetic risk scores for biological characteristics to investigate whether those characteristics partially mediate the observed relationship between birth weight and subsequent risk of disease in later life. Whole cohort with genetic data that have reported their birth weight, diagnosis of cardiometabolic diseases, osteoporosis or fertility defects.
- Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization design to investigate a possible causal effect of maternal lipid concentrations on offspring birth weight.
- Assessment of the genetic and clinical determinants of fracture risk: genome wide association and mendelian randomisation study.
- Using structural equation modelling to jointly estimate maternal and fetal effects on birthweight in the UK Biobank
- Identification of 153 new loci associated with heel bone mineral density and functional involvement of GPC6 in osteoporosis